Queue Data Structure
The queue data structure is a collection of items that follow the
firstin, first out
principle. The first added element
will be the first element to be removed from the queue. So, elements
are added in the back and removed from the front.
An analogy would be a simple line of people waiting for the next train. In the software engineering context, an example is a web server receiving and responding requests.
The main API methods are enqueue
(add) and
dequeue
(remove). But we can also add other methods as
part of the API implementation: size
, front
,
back
, and is_empty
.
We can create a Queue
class as a wrapper and use the
Python list to store the queue data. This class will have the
implementation of the enqueue
, dequeue
,
size
, front
, back
, and
is_empty
methods.
The first step is to create a class definition and how we are gone store our items.
class Queue:
def __init__(self):
self.items = []
This is basically what we need for now. Just a class and its
constructor. When the instance is created, it will have the
items
list to store the queue items.
For the enqueue
method, we just need to use the list
append
method to add new items. The new items will be
placed in the last index of this items
list. So the front
item from the queue will always be the first item.
def enqueue(self, item):
self.items.append(item)
It receives the new item and appends it to the list.
The size
method only counts the number of the queue items
by using the len
function.
def size(self):
return len(self.items)
The idea of the is_empty
method is to verify if the list
has or not items in it. If it has, returns False
.
Otherwise, True
. To count the number of items in the
queue, we can simply use the size
method already
implemented.
def is_empty(self):
return self.size() == 0
The pop
method from the list data structure can also be
used to dequeue the item from the queue. It dequeues the first element
as it is expected for the queue. The first added item.
def dequeue(self):
return self.items.pop(0)
But we need to handle the queue emptiness. For an empty list, the
pop
method raises an exception
IndexError: poop from empty list
. So we can create an
exception class to handle this issue.
class Emptiness(Exception):
pass
And uses it when the list is empty:
def dequeue(self):
if self.is_empty():
raise Emptiness('The Queue is empty')
return self.items.dequeue()
If it is empty, we raise this exception. Otherwise, we can dequeue the front item from the queue.
We use this same emptiness strategy for the front
method:
def front(self):
if self.is_empty():
raise Emptiness('The Queue is empty')
return self.items[0]
If it has at least one item, we get the front, the first added item in the queue.
Also the same emptiness strategy for the back
method:
def back(self):
if self.is_empty():
raise Emptiness('The Queue is empty')
return self.items[1]
If it has at least one item, we get the back item, the last added item in the queue.
Queue usage
I created some helper functions to help test the queue usage.
def test_enqueue(queue, item):
queue.enqueue(item)
print(queue.items)
def test_dequeue(queue):
queue.dequeue()
print(queue.items)
def test_emptiness(queue):
is_empty = queue.is_empty()
print(is_empty)
def test_size(queue):
size = queue.size()
print(size)
def test_front(queue):
front = queue.front()
print(front)
def test_back(queue):
back = queue.back()
print(back)
They basically call a queue method and print the expected result from the method call.
The usage will be something like:
queue = Queue()
test_emptiness(queue) # True
test_size(queue) # 0
test_enqueue(queue, 1) # [1]
test_enqueue(queue, 2) # [1, 2]
test_enqueue(queue, 3) # [1, 2, 3]
test_enqueue(queue, 4) # [1, 2, 3, 4]
test_enqueue(queue, 5) # [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
test_emptiness(queue) # False
test_size(queue) # 5
test_front(queue) # 1
test_back(queue) # 5
test_dequeue(queue) # [2, 3, 4, 5]
test_dequeue(queue) # [3, 4, 5]
test_dequeue(queue) # [4, 5]
test_dequeue(queue) # [5]
test_emptiness(queue) # False
test_size(queue) # 1
test_front(queue) # 5
test_back(queue) # 5
test_dequeue(queue) # []
test_emptiness(queue) # True
test_size(queue) # 0
We first instantiate a new queue from the Queue
class.
 So now we can verify its emptiness: yes, it is!
 Verify size: 0.

Enqueue 5 new items to the queue:
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
.  Verify emptiness again: not anymore!
 Verify size: 5.
 Get the front element: 1 because it was the first added item.
 Get the back element: 5 because it was the last added item.
 Dequeue 4 items: 1, 2, 3, and 4.
 Verify emptiness: it is not empty yet!
 The size is 1 and the back and front are the same number: 5
 Dequeue the remaining item.
 Verify emptiness: it is empty now!
 Size is back to 0.
Another way of testing it
Enqueue 5 new items:
queue = Queue()
queue.enqueue(1)
queue.enqueue(2)
queue.enqueue(3)
queue.enqueue(4)
queue.enqueue(5)
Loop through the items and print each one.
for item in queue.items:
print(item)
Test front and back.
test_front(queue) # 1
test_back(queue) # 5
Dequeue all.
while not queue.is_empty():
queue.dequeue()
Test size.
test_size(queue) # 0
Runtime and Space complexities
Now about space and runtime complexities for each method implemented.
The space is pretty simple. It's a list, so it's
O(n)
where n
is the current number of items
in the stack.
The runtime for each method is O(1)
, constant time.
Resources
 Learning Python: From Zero to Hero
 One Month  Learn Python
 Data Structures and Algorithms in Python
 Data Structures: Stacks and Queues
 BigO Notation For Coding Interviews and Beyond
 Learn Python from Scratch
 Learn ObjectOriented Programming in Python
 Data Structures in Python: An Interview Refresher