This is part of my series on Elixir Learnings, where I share micro-posts about everything I'm learning related to Elixir.
Today we going to play around with lists. At the same time lists are very simple, they are powerful. And we use it always in our day-to-day work. Here we will understand some common concepts we need to handle lists.
Add and remove items
We have two ways to add new items to the list. We can use the
insert_at List function and the
to concat lists.
insert_at function receives three parameters: the
list, the index position you want to add the new item, and the item.
items = [1 ,2 ,3 ,4] List.insert_at(items, 0, 0) # [0, 1 ,2 ,3 ,4] List.insert_at(items, 4, 5) # [1 ,2 ,3 ,4, 5]
And Elixir lists are immutable. After these operations, if we call the
items again, it will be the first value.
items # [1 ,2 ,3 ,4]
The list value doesn't change.
We can also use the
++ operator to concat lists to add a
brothers = ['TK', 'Yuji', 'Bruno'] new_brother = 'Kaio' brothers ++ [new_brother] # ['TK', 'Yuji', 'Bruno', 'Kaio']
Not only one item. But concat any list.
['TK', 'Kaio'] ++ ['Yuji', 'Bruno'] # ['TK', 'Kaio', 'Yuji', 'Bruno']
-- operator, we can subtract a list of items
from the left list.
bookshelf = ['HP', 'Compound Effect', 'Enlightenment Now'] bookshelf -- ['HP'] # ['Compound Effect', 'Enlightenment Now']
I learned simple but very useful functions to get items:
List.first([1, 2, 3]) # 1 List.last([1, 2, 3]) # 3
We can also handle empty lists:
List.first() # nil List.last() # nil
Make it flat
Another cool function is
flat. It flats nested lists. In
other words, it transforms nested lists into just one with all the
- Not so nested lists
List.flatten([1, , ]) # [1, 2, 3]
- More complex nested lists
List.flatten([1, [[2, ]]]) # [1, 2, 3]
- Nested empty lists
List.flatten([, [, ]]) # 
Iterate through it
One thing we always do with lists is iteration. We can use the
each function from the
Enum module to loop
through the list.
items = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] Enum.each(items, fn (n) -> IO.inspect(n) end)
And we can also use a shortcut for functions.
Enum.each(items, &IO.inspect/1) # shortcut
Enum module has various other functions to work on
data types, like lists, that implements the
Another way to get items from the list is called
destructuring. We unpack items from the list by
specifying the "variables" inside a list.
[a, b, c] = [1, 2, 3] IO.inspect a IO.inspect b IO.inspect c
[a, b, c], we are specifying the variable names
to destructure the list.
If you want to get only the second item, use the
_ operator (also called
[_, x, _] = [1, 2, 3] IO.inspect x # 2
Another interesting way to get items is by using the
| operator. With this operator, we get the head (first
item) and the right part represents the other items.
[head | rest] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] IO.inspect head # 1 IO.inspect rest # [2, 3, 4, 5]
But it's not just about the first element. We can specify more than just the first item.
[first, second | rest] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] IO.inspect first # 1 IO.inspect second # 2 IO.inspect rest # [2, 3, 4, 5]
Lists are linked lists in Elixir. The last node points to an empty list.
[head | rest] = [:a] IO.inspect head # :a IO.inspect rest # 
This is why when we get the rest, it is an empty list.
Lists have the
wrap function to transform values into a
list. It wraps the value in a list.
List.wrap("TK") # ["TK"] List.wrap(1) #  List.wrap(true) # [true] List.wrap(:ola) # [:ola]
We can also wrap a list. But it just returns the same list.
List.wrap([1, 2, 3]) # [1, 2, 3]
nil is also a value. It represents the absence of a
value. When we wrap it, the function returns an empty list.
List.wrap(nil) #